Psoriasis en alcohol
29 Gene mutations of proteins involved in maag the skin's ability to function as a barrier have been identified as markers of susceptibility for the development of psoriasis. 47 48 dna released from dying cells acts as an inflammatory stimulus in psoriasis 49 and stimulates the receptors on certain dendritic cells, which in turn produce the cytokine interferon-α. 49 In response to these chemical messages from dendritic cells and T cells, keratinocytes also secrete cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, which signal downstream inflammatory cells to arrive and stimulate additional inflammation. 29 Dendritic cells bridge the innate immune system and adaptive immune system. They are increased in psoriatic lesions 44 and induce the proliferation of T cells and type 1 helper T cells (Th1). Targeted immunotherapy as well as psoralen and ultraviolet A (puva) therapy can reduce the number of dendritic cells and favors a th2 cell cytokine secretion pattern over a th1/Th17 cell cytokine profile. 29 38 Psoriatic T cells move from the dermis into the epidermis and secrete interferon-γ and interleukin-17. 50 Interleukin-23 is known to induce the production of interleukin-17 and interleukin-22. 44 50 Interleukin-22 works in combination with interleukin-17 to induce keratinocytes to secrete neutrophil -attracting cytokines. 50 diagnosis edit a diagnosis of psoriasis is usually based on the appearance of the skin. Skin characteristics typical for psoriasis are scaly, erythematous plaques, papules, or patches of skin that may be painful and itch. 18 no special blood tests or diagnostic procedures are usually required to make the diagnosis. 17 51 The differential diagnosis of psoriasis includes dermatological conditions similar in appearance such as discoid eczema, seborrhoeic eczema, pityriasis rosea (may be confused with guttate psoriasis nail fungus (may be confused with nail psoriasis) or cutaneous T cell lymphoma (50 of individuals with this. 43 Dermatologic manifestations of systemic illnesses such as the rash of secondary syphilis may also be confused with psoriasis.
Psoriasis en voeding Smulweb Blog
38 39 It is hypothesized that the diminished CD4-T cell presence causes an overactivation of CD8-T cells, which are responsible for the exacerbation of psoriasis in hiv-positive people. Psoriasis in those with hiv/aids is often severe and may be untreatable with conventional therapy. 40 Microbes edit Psoriasis has been described as occurring after strep throat, and may be worsened by skin or gut colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, malassezia, and Candida albicans. 41 Medications edit Drug-induced psoriasis may occur with beta blockers, 10 lithium, 10 antimalarial medications, 10 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 10 terbinafine, calcium channel blockers, captopril, glyburide, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, 10 interleukins, interferons, 10 lipid-lowering drugs, 15 :197 and paradoxically tnf inhibitors such as infliximab. 42 Withdrawal of corticosteroids (topical steroid cream) can aggravate psoriasis due to the rebound effect. 43 Mechanism edit Psoriasis is characterized by an abnormally excessive and rapid growth of the epidermal layer of the skin. 44 Abnormal production of skin cells (especially during wound repair ) taillevormer and an overabundance of skin cells result from the sequence of pathological events in psoriasis. 17 skin cells are replaced every 35 days in psoriasis rather than the usual 2830 days. 45 These changes are believed to stem from the premature maturation of keratinocytes induced by an inflammatory cascade in the dermis involving dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells (three subtypes of white blood cells ). 11 36 These immune cells move from the dermis to the epidermis and secrete inflammatory chemical signals (cytokines) such as interleukin-36γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-22. 29 46 These secreted inflammatory signals are believed to stimulate keratinocytes to proliferate. 29 One hypothesis is that psoriasis involves a defect in regulatory t cells, and in the regulatory cytokine interleukin-10.
and IL12B have both been strongly linked with psoriasis. 31 T cells are involved in the inflammatory process that leads to psoriasis. 29 These genes are on the pathway that upregulate tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor κb, two genes involved in inflammation. 29 Recently, the first gene directly linked to psoriasis has been identified. A rare mutation in the gene encoding for the card14 protein plus an environmental trigger was enough to cause plaque psoriasis (the most common form of psoriasis). 32 33 Lifestyle edit conditions reported as worsening the disease include chronic infections, stress, and changes in season and climate. 31 Others that might worsen the condition include hot water, scratching psoriasis skin lesions, skin dryness, excessive alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and obesity. Hiv edit The rate of psoriasis in hiv-positive individuals is comparable to that of hiv-negative individuals, however, psoriasis tends to be more severe in people infected with hiv. 36 A much higher rate of psoriatic arthritis occurs in hiv-positive individuals with psoriasis than in those without the infection. 36 The immune response in those infected with hiv is typically characterized by cellular signals from Th2 subset of CD4 helper T cells, 37 whereas the immune response in psoriasis vulgaris is characterized by a pattern of cellular signals typical of Th1 subset of CD4.
Psoriasis Treatment: Treating Psoriasis & Remedies
29 Classic genome-wide linkage analysis has identified nine loci on different chromosomes associated with psoriasis. They are called psoriasis susceptibility 1 through 9 ( psors1 through psors9 ). Within those loci are genes on pathways that lead to inflammation. Certain variations ( mutations ) of those genes are commonly found in psoriasis. 29 Genome-wide association scans have identified other genes that are altered to characteristic variants in psoriasis. Some of these genes express inflammatory signal proteins, which affect cells extra in the immune system that are also involved in psoriasis. Some of these genes are also involved in other autoimmune diseases. 29 The major determinant is psors1, which probably accounts for 3550 of psoriasis heritability. 30 It controls genes that affect the immune system or encode skin proteins that are overabundant with psoriasis. Psors1 is located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (mhc which controls important immune functions. Three genes in the psors1 locus have a strong association with psoriasis vulgaris: hla-c variant hla-cw6, 31 which encodes a mhc class I protein; cchcr1, variant wwc, which encodes a coiled coil protein that is overexpressed in psoriatic epidermis; and cdsn, variant allele 5, which.
Nail psoriasis occurs in 4045 of people with psoriasis affecting the skin and has a lifetime incidence of 8090 in those with psoriatic arthritis. 27 These changes include pitting of the nails (pinhead-sized depressions in the nail is seen in 70 with nail psoriasis whitening of the nail, small areas of bleeding from capillaries under the nail, yellow-reddish discoloration of the nails known as the oil drop or salmon. 27 Medical signs edit In addition to the appearance and distribution of the rash, specific medical signs may be used by medical practitioners to assist with diagnosis. These may include auspitz's sign (pinpoint bleeding when scale is removed koebner phenomenon (psoriatic skin lesions induced by trauma to the skin 19 and itching and pain localized to papules and plaques. 18 19 The cause of psoriasis is not fully understood, but a number of theories exist. Genetics edit see also: List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions Around one-third of people with psoriasis report a family history of the disease, and researchers have identified genetic loci associated with the condition. Identical twin studies suggest a 70 chance of a twin developing psoriasis if the other twin has the disorder. The risk is around 20 for nonidentical twins. These findings suggest both a genetic susceptibility and an environmental response in developing psoriasis. 28 Psoriasis has a strong hereditary component, and many genes are associated with it, but it is unclear how those genes work together. Most of the identified genes relate to the immune system, particularly the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and T cells. Genetic studies are valuable due to their ability to identify molecular mechanisms and pathways for further study and potential drug targets.
22 However, modern studies have failed to demonstrate any link between the two conditions. 23 Seborrheic-like psoriasis edit seborrheic-like psoriasis is a common form of psoriasis with clinical aspects of psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis, and it may be difficult to distinguish from the latter. This form of psoriasis typically manifests as red plaques with greasy scales in areas of higher sebum production such as the scalp, forehead, skin folds next to the nose, skin surrounding the mouth, skin on the chest above the sternum, and in skin folds. 19 Psoriatic arthritis edit Psoriatic arthritis is a form of chronic inflammatory arthritis that has a highly variable clinical presentation and frequently occurs in association with skin and nail psoriasis. 24 25 It typically involves painful inflammation of the joints and surrounding connective tissue and can occur in any joint, but most commonly affects the joints of the fingers and toes. This can result in a sausage-shaped swelling of the fingers and toes known as dactylitis. 24 Psoriatic arthritis can also affect the hips, knees, spine ( spondylitis and sacroiliac joint ( sacroiliitis ). 26 About 30 of individuals with psoriasis will develop psoriatic arthritis. 11 skin manifestations of psoriasis tend to occur before arthritic manifestations in about 75 of cases. 25 nail changes edit Psoriasis of a fingernail, with visible pitting. A photograph showing the effects of psoriasis on the toenails. Psoriasis can affect the nails and produces a variety of changes in the appearance of finger and toe nails.
Psoriasis en voeding: Het verband hiertussen - optimale18 Napkin psoriasis edit napkin psoriasis is a subtype of medicatie psoriasis common in infants characterized by red papules with silver scale in the diaper area that may extend to the torso or limbs. 19 Napkin psoriasis is often misdiagnosed as napkin dermatitis (diaper rash). 20 Guttate psoriasis edit guttate psoriasis is characterized by numerous small, scaly, red or pink, droplet-like lesions (papules). These numerous spots of psoriasis appear over large areas of the body, primarily the trunk, but also the limbs and scalp. Guttate psoriasis is often triggered by a streptococcal infection, typically streptococcal pharyngitis. 18 The reverse is not true. Mouth edit Psoriasis in the mouth is very rare, 21 in contrast to lichen planus, another common papulosquamous disorder that commonly involves both the skin and mouth. When psoriasis involves the oral mucosa (the lining of the mouth it may be asymptomatic, 21 but it may appear as white or grey-yellow plaques. 21 Fissured tongue is the most common finding in those with oral psoriasis and has been reported to occur.520 of people with psoriasis affecting the skin. The microscopic appearance of oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue (migratory stomatitis) is very similar to the appearance of psoriasis.
11 12 Psoriatic erythroderma (erythrodermic psoriasis) involves widespread inflammation and exfoliation of the skin over most of the body surface. It may be accompanied by severe pillen itching, swelling, and pain. It is often the result of an exacerbation of unstable plaque psoriasis, particularly following the abrupt withdrawal of systemic glucocorticoids. 13 This form of psoriasis can be fatal as the extreme inflammation and exfoliation disrupt the body's ability to regulate temperature and perform barrier functions. 14 Plaques of psoriasis A person's arm covered with plaque psoriasis Psoriasis of the palms Other forms edit Additional types of psoriasis comprise approximately 10 of cases. They include pustular, inverse, napkin, guttate, oral, and seborrheic-like forms. 15 Pustular psoriasis edit pustular psoriasis appears as raised bumps filled with noninfectious pus ( pustules ). 16 The skin under and surrounding the pustules is red and tender. 17 Inverse psoriasis edit Inverse psoriasis (also known as flexural psoriasis) appears as smooth, inflamed patches of skin. The patches frequently affect skin folds, particularly around the genitals (between the thigh and groin the armpits, in the skin folds of an overweight abdomen (known as panniculus between the buttocks in the intergluteal cleft, and under the breasts in the inframammary fold. Heat, trauma, and infection are thought to play a role in the development of this atypical form of psoriasis.
Psoriasis en alles wat je er tegen kunt doen
4 There is no cure for psoriasis; however, various treatments can help control the symptoms. 4 These treatments include steroid creams, vitamin D3 cream, ultraviolet light and immune system suppressing medications, such as methotrexate. 6 About 75 percent of cases can be managed with creams alone. 4 The disease affects two to four percent of the population. 8 Men and women are affected with equal frequency. 6 The disease may begin at any age, but typically starts in adulthood. 5 Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis, lymphomas, cardiovascular disease, crohn's disease and depression. 4 Psoriatic arthritis affects up to 30 percent of individuals with psoriasis. 10 Contents Signs and symptoms edit Plaque psoriasis edit Psoriatic plaque, showing a silvery center surrounded by a reddened border. Psoriasis vulgaris (also known as chronic stationary psoriasis or plaque-like psoriasis) is the most common form and affects 8590 boven of people with psoriasis. 11 Plaque psoriasis typically appears as raised areas of inflamed skin covered with silvery-white scaly skin. These areas are called plaques and are most commonly found on the elbows, knees, scalp, and back.
6, erythrodermic psoriasis occurs when the rash becomes very widespread, and can develop from any of the other types. 4, fingernails and toenails are affected in most people with psoriasis at some point in time. 4, this may include pits in the nails or changes in nail color. 4, psoriasis is generally thought to be a genetic disease that is triggered by environmental factors. 3, in twin studies, identical twins are three times more likely to be affected compared to non-identical twins. This suggests that genetic factors hardloop predispose to psoriasis. 4 Symptoms often worsen during winter and with certain medications, such as beta blockers or nsaids. 4 Infections and psychological stress can also play a role. 3 6 Psoriasis is not contagious. 4 The underlying mechanism involves the immune system reacting to skin cells. 4 diagnosis is typically based on the signs and symptoms.
Psoriasis - wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin. 6, these skin patches are typically red, itchy, and scaly. 3, psoriasis varies in severity from small, localized patches to complete body coverage. 3, injury to the beren skin can trigger psoriatic skin changes at that spot, which is known as the. 9, there are five main types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic. 6, plaque psoriasis, also known as psoriasis vulgaris, makes up about 90 percent of cases. 4, it typically presents as red patches with white scales on top. 4, areas of the body most commonly affected are the back of the forearms, shins, navel area, and scalp. 4, guttate psoriasis has drop-shaped lesions. 6, pustular psoriasis presents as small non-infectious pus -filled blisters. Inverse psoriasis forms red patches in skin folds.